Definition, Functions and Types of Enzymes


About Enzyme

An enzyme is a biocatalyst synthesizes by a living cell.

An enzyme is a protein in nature except for RNA because of RNA act as a Ribo Enzyme.

An enzyme is a substance having thermolabile in character and colloidal in nature.

It posses the specific action for the substance.

Functions of Enzymes

  • All enzyme is protein in nature, the only exception is RNA is also capable of the enzymatic activity.
  • Each and every enzyme have an own specific confirmation and structure and these quality are very important for the enzymatic activity.
  • Some enzyme is required additional compound for the enzymatic activity is known as co-factor and co-enzyme.Co-factor:
    Co-factor is the substance consisted of the one or more than one inorganic ion.e.g. – iron, magnesium, zinc, etc. Co-enzyme:
    Co-enzyme consist a complex organic or metal organic molecule.e.g. – biocytine and co-enzyme A (CoA).
  • Some of the enzymes required no chemical substance for the catalytic activity.
  • Some of the enzymes are required both co-enzyme and a metal ion.
  • For the completion of the catalytic activity enzyme bound with the co-enzyme or co-factor is known as Holoenzyme. Holoenzyme = apoenzyme + co-enzyme/co-factor.

Types of Enzymes

Enzymes are classified in following types…

  1. Oxireductase
  2. Transferase
  3. Hydrolases
  4. Lyases
  5. Isomarase
  6. Ligase

Oxireductase:

This type of reaction is important for the transfer for the electron, hydroxide ions.
It posses the oxidation and reduction reactions.

e.g.- alcohol dehydrates.

Transferease:

This type of enzymatic reaction is important for the catalyzed group transfer reaction such as glycoside, methyl phasphoryle.

e.g.- Hexokinase.

Hydrolases

It catalysed hydrolysis reaction. It transfer the functional group of H2O.

e.g.- lipase.

Lyases:

It forms double bond by removal of group.

e.g.- Aldolase.

Isomarase:

Transfer of group within the molecule. This type of reaction also catalyzed the geometric or structure change within the molecule.

e.g.- triose phosphate isomarese.

Ligase:

This type of reaction catalysed C-C, C-S, C-O, C-N bonds. Its works with the help of condensation reaction.

e.g.- glutamine synthatases.


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Ankita Rai
Hey, I'm graduated in Pharmacy and working with a top reputed company as quality control and analysis. I love to share my ideas, and knowledge with everyone by writing articles on the latest pharmacy trends and thanks to Websparrow team to provide me a platform.