Secretion of hormones from the Anterior Pituitary Gland


Hormones are secreted from an endocrine gland. Endocrine gland consists of a group of secretory cell that is surrounded by a network of a capillary.

An endocrine gland is also known as “Duct-less gland”. It produces the hormones as a chemical messenger to control the body physiology. Duct-less gland or endocrine gland is also involved in the maintenance of body homeostasis by the rapid change and precise change of physiology.

Pituitary gland located just below the hypothalamus.

Anterior Pituitary Lobe

Anterior pituitary lobe also known as Adenohypophysis because it is made up by glandular cell.

Release of Hormones from Anterior Pituitary Lobe

There are following hormones secreted from AP(anterior pituitary) lobe.

  • Growth hormone(GH) OR somatotropic hormone.
  • Thyroid stimulating hormone(TSH) OR thyrotropic hormone.
  • Adrenocorticotropic hormone(ACTH).
  • Follicle stimulating hormone(FSH).
  • Luteinizing hormone(LH)
  • Luteotropic hormone OR prolactine.

Growth Hormone(GH) or Somatotropic Hormone

Growth hormone secreted from anterior pituitary(AP) lobe.
Growth hormone is responsible for the growth stimulation.
Growth hormone is release from the vessophils cell of anterior pituitary hormone. It is poly peptide in nature made by long single chain of 191 amino acid.

Growth hormone is release from somatotropic cell so it is also known as somatotropin.
The release of hormone is controlled by hypothalamus releasing hormone known as growth hormone releasing hormone(GHRH) OR somatocrinin and growth hormone inhibiting hormone(GHIH) OR somatostanin.

Regulation of release of Growth Hormone

Release of hormone is regulated by the hypothalamus. When the body required the growth hormone then hypothalamus release growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH) that is activate the anterior pituitary (AP) lobe.
Anterior pituitary lobe secretes growth hormone.
Then blood level of growth is increase and body use required growth hormone.

When growth hormone increases more the use then hypothalamus activates growth hormone inhibiting hormone (GHIH).
GHIH stimulate the anterior pituitary lobe.

Function of Growth Hormone

There are following function of growth hormone.

  1. Growth hormones help to promote the growth of skeleton muscle and bone.
  2. Growth hormone is useful for the retention of nitrogen, water and mineral. Nitrogen involve in the synthesis of amino acid and protein.
  3. It is produce by anterior pituitary gland and it is also known as human growth hormone (HGH).
    Growth hormones also involve in the metabolism process it’s also affect the insulin or blood sugar level.

Drawback or Disorder of Growth Hormone(GH)

Hyposecretion:

After puberty, the secretion of Growth Hormone is decrease cause Dwarfism.

Hypersecretion

Hypersecretion of growth hormone is cause acromegaly(disturb in bone growth).

Thyroid stimulating hormone(TSH) or Thyrotropic Hormone(TTH)

Thyroid stimulating hormone is also known as thyrotropic hormone.
It is secretes from anterior pituitary gland.
The release and regulation of TSH is controlled by the hypothalamus.Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) is glycopeptides in nature.

Regulation of release of TSH

Regulation of release of thyroid stimulating hormone(TSH) is controlled by hypothalamus.

When our body required TSH or level of TSH is decrease in body then hypothalamus release thyroid releasing hormone(TRH) and act on anterior pituitary(AP) lobe.

Then TSH is secreted from anterior pituitary (AP) lobe and complete the body requirement (i.e. maintain body level of TSH).
When requirement of TSH is completed or increase the level of TSH in body then release of TSH is controlled by hypothalamus by negative(-ve) feedback mechanism.

Function of TSH

There are following function of thyroid stimulating hormone(TSH).

  1. Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) is increase the Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR) and heat. Basal metabolic rate is defined as the, measurement of energy used at the resting mode.
  2. TSH is involved in the development of skeleton muscle.
  3. It is also responsible for metabolic process.
  4. Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) is increase the lipogenisis (lipogenisis means formation of lipid), protogenisis (formation of protein) and carbohydrogenesis process.

Drawback of release of TSH

Hyposecretion:

After puberty- hyposecretion of TSH cause myxedema.

Hypersecretion:

Hypersecretion of TSH cause thyrotoxicosis(enlargement of thyroid gland).

Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH)

ACTH secreted from anterior pituitary lobe. Also known as Corticotropin.

It is polypeptide in nature.

It maintains the level of glucocorticoid steroid hormone.

Release of ACTH is controlled by corticosteroid releasing hormone(CRH) of hypothalamus.

Regulation of release of ACTH

Regulation of release of ACTH is controlled by hypothalamus.

When our body required ACTH or level of ACTH is decrease in body then hypothalamus release ACTH releasing hormone or corticosteroid releasing hormone and act on anterior pituitary(AP) lobe.

Then ACTH is secreted from anterior pituitary (AP) lobe and complete the body requirement (i.e. maintain body level of ACTH).

When requirement of ACTH is completed or increase the level of ACTH in body then release of ACTH is controlled by hypothalamus by negative (-ve) feedback mechanism.

Function of ACTH

  1. ACTH is mainly help in the Gluconeogenesis (formation of glycon) process.
  2. ACTH is help in the protein synthesis and ATP production.
  3. It’s also responsible for lipolysis.
  4. ACTH is also balance the level of mineral and water in body.
  5. It decreases androgenic effect but having high anabolic affect.

Drawback or Disorder of ACTH

Hyposecretion

Hyposecretion of ACTH is cause Addison’s disease.

Symptoms of addison’s disease.

  • Skin pigmentation
  • Loss of body weight
  • Hypotension
  • Distribution of fat on face and abdominal region

Hypersecretion

Hypersecretion of ACTH is cause-

  • increase body weight
  • hypertension
  • distribution of fat on face, neck and abdominal region

Follicle Stimulating Hormone(FSH)

Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) is a gonadotropin hormone release from anterior pituitary hormone.
FSH is polypeptide in nature.
It is secrete from gonadotropic cell of anterior pituitary lobe.

Regulation of release of FSH

Regulation of release of FSH is controlled by hypothalamus.

When our body required FSH or level of FSH is decrease in body then hypothalamus release follicle releasing hormone (FRH) and then FRH act on anterior pituitary (AP) lobe.

Then FSH is secreted from anterior pituitary (AP) lobe and complete the body requirement (i.e. maintain the body level of FSH).

When requirement of FSH is completed or increase the level of FSH in body then release of FSH is controlled by hypothalamus by negative(-ve) feedback mechanism.

Function of FSH

In female:

In female FSH stimulate the ovarian follicle (also known as graafian follicle) for production of ova and release of estrogen hormone.

In male:

In male FSH stimulate the somniferous tubules and germinal epithelial layer.
It also involve in production of spermatozoon.

Drawback or Disorder of FSH

Hyposecretion

In female hyposecretion of FSH is cause disturbance in manturation cycle.

Hypersecretion

In female hypersecretion of FSH is cause disturbance in manturation cycle and
in male hypersecretion of FSH is cause formation of unmature spermatozoo.

Luteinizing Hormone(LH)

Luteinizing hormone (LH) is release from the anterior pituitary (AP) lobe. It is polypeptide in nature.
Release of LH is controlled by hypothalamus with the help of luteinizing hormone releasing hormone (LHRH).

Regulation of release of LH

Regulation of release of LH is controlled by hypothalamus.

When our body required LH or level of LH is decrease in body then hypothalamus release follicle releasing hormone (LHRH) and then LHRH act on anterior pituitary (AP) lobe.

Then LH is secreted from anterior pituitary (AP) lobe and complete the body requirement (i.e. maintain the body level of LH).

When requirement of LH is completed or increase the level of LH in body then release of LH is controlled by hypothalamus by negative (-ve) feedback mechanism.

Function of LH

In female:

In female LH is responsible for the stimulation of corpus luteum cell and enhance the formation of progesterone.
And it also stimulates the lobules of lutical cell of mammary gland.
LH is also responsible for enlargement of a mammary gland and also provides shape of mammary gland.

In male:

In male LH is responsible for the stimulation of interstitial cell (leydig cell) to formation of testosterone.

Drawback or Disorder of LH

Hyposecretion

In female- its responsible for miscarrige of pregnancy.

In male- puberty comes late because of decrease of secretion of testosterone.

Hypersecretion

In female- cause disorder of pregnancy and access out growth of mammary gland.

In male- puberty comes earlier.


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Ankita Rai
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