Human blood group and classification of ABO system

When blood from one person transfer to another person then donors blood should be matches with acceptor blood otherwise there is mismatching between to cause death.

In RBC membrane several class of antigen are present in which two most important types are...

  1. ABO system
  2. Rh factor

ABO System

In ABO system cell membrane of RBC contain antigen called Agglutinogen. There are two type of Agglutinogen present in human blood A and B and these are divided into four groups.

  • Blood group A
  • Blood group B
  • Blood group AB
  • Blood group O

Blood group A- Person whose RBC membrane contains A Agglutinogen.

Blood group B- Person whose RBC membrane contains B Agglutinogen.

Blood group AB- Person whose RBC membrane contains A and B both Agglutinogen.

Blood group O- Person whose RBC membrane contains no Agglutinogen.

Antibodies (Agglutinins) of ABO Group

Antibodies present in plasma. It divided into two sub classes.

  1. Anti A
  2. Anti B

Blood group A- plasma contain Anti B antibody.

Blood group B- plasma contain Anti A antibody.

Blood group AB- plasma contains no antibody.

Blood group O- plasma contains A and B both antibody.

Name of Blood Group RBC membrane contain Antigen Plasma contain Antibody
A A Anti B
B B Anti A
AB A and B NIL
O NIL Anti A and Anti B

Mismatching in Blood Group

  • Donor having blood group A contains A Agglutinogen (antigen) in RBC and Anti B agglutinin (anti B antibodies) in plasma.
  • Acceptor having blood group B contains b Agglutinogen (antigen) in RBC and Anti A antibody in plasma.
  • After mixing donor RBC clump and used by anti A antibody present in plasma of acceptor.

e.g.- Group A blood transferred in a person belonging to blood group B.

Human blood group and classification of ABO system
Table display that which blood group can be transferred to which blood group.
Donor’s group Acceptor’s Group

Note: AB is acceptor, it can accept from all group and O is all donor, it can donate to all group.

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About the Author

Ankita Rai

Ankita Rai has completed her Bachelor of Pharmacy degree and working with a top reputed company as quality control and analysis. She has a good understanding of pharmacy and loves to share her experiments, ideas, and knowledge with everyone by writing articles on the latest pharmacy trends.